Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC)
An EC pesticide is primarily composed of the technical material, solvents, and emulsifiers. Some EC pesticide may also include small amounts of co-solvents and stabilizers. EC pesticides are required to be clear and transparent, free from particles or floccule. They should remain stable without delamination or precipitation under normal storage conditions, while maintaining their original emulsifying properties and efficacy. When EC pesticides are mixed with water, they should disperse well, resulting in a light blue, transparent or semi-transparent solution. Furthermore, they should be stable enough, which means they should not produce sediment or separate out oily substances within a certain period of time.
The DP pesticide is produced by mixing the technical material with fillers. Some DP pesticides may also contain stabilizers. There are various types of fillers, commonly used fillers include clay, kaolinite, talc, diatomaceous earth, etc. DP pesticides are primarily used by dusting, mixing with poisonous soil, etc. They cannot be sprayed with water.
Wettable Powder (WP)
The WP pesticide is produced by mixing the technical material, fillers, and wetting agents. The quality of WP pesticides is assessed based on their wettability and suspension rate. Poorly suspended WP not only reduces efficacy but can also lead to significant damage to crops. The WP pesticide is typically diluted with water and used by spraying.
The granules are prepared by mixing the technical material with carriers and additives. The carrier plays a crucial role in providing adhesion and dilution of the technical material, and is the basis for forming granules (particle matrix). Therefore, it is required that the carrier does not decompose pesticides and has suitable properties such as hardness, density, adsorptivity, and water-disintegration rate. Common carriers include hydrated silica, diatomaceous earth, pottery clay, purple sandstone powder, cinder block, clay, red bricks, sawdust, and others. Common additives include binders (coating agents), adsorbents, wetting agents, and dyes, etc. Granule pesticides are used through broadcasting, offering advantages such as convenience of use, operational safety, wide applicability, and prolonged efficacy.
SL agents are mainly composed of the pesticide technical material and water, with some products also containing small amounts of preservatives, wetting agents, dyes, and so on. This kind of formulation uses water as the solvent. The pesticide technical materials are highly soluable and some technical materials exist in the form of salts in water. Water-based formulations are convenient to process with low costs, but some pesticides are unstable in water and may decompose and lose effectiveness during long-term storage.
Suspension Concentrate (SC)
A suspension concentrate is a type of liquid formulation that is flowable. It is made from a mixture of the pesticide technical material and additives such as dispersants. The particle diameter of a suspension concentrate is less than 5 microns. When using a suspension concentrate, it is typically diluted with water and applied through spraying.
Oil Miscible Liquid (OL)
The oil miscible liquid is an oil-based liquid formulation of pesticide technical materials. Some formulations may require the addition of co-solvents or chemical stabilizers during processing. When used, it can be directly sprayed and doesn’t need to be diluted.
Ultra-Low Volume Liquid（UL）
Ultra-low volume liquid is a type of oil-based formulation, also known as oil agent. It is produced by blending pesticides with solvents, and sometimes includes small amounts of solubilizers and stabilizers, etc. This type of formulation is specifically designed for use with ultra-low volume sprayers or aircraft for direct spraying without dilution. The fine mist and high concentration of the spray allow for a greater amount of pesticide to adhere to the target surface per unit area. Therefore, the pesticides used in this formulation must be highly effective and low in toxicity. The solvents used in the formulation should also have low volatility, high density, high flash point, and be safe to crops.
Soluble Powder (SP)
Soluble powder is a water-soluble formulation composed of water-soluble pesticide technical materials and a small amount of water-soluble fillers that are mixed and finely ground. Some formulations may also include a small amount of surfactants. It is used by dissolving the powder in water and then applying it through spraying.
Smoke Generator (FU)
Smoke generator is a type of powdered formulation made from pesticide technical materials, fuel (such as sawdust powder), combustion promoter (oxidant, such as potassium nitrate), and flame retardant (such as pottery clay), etc. The fineness of the powder is typically controlled by passing through an 80-mesh sieve. Smoke generators are usually packaged in bags or cans and are equipped with an ignition wire.
When ignited, it burns without producing flames. The heat causes the technical materials of the pesticide to vaporize, and upon cooling in the air, they condense into solid particles, which settle on plants, thereby achieving the purpose of disease or pest control. The smoke particles in the air can also enter the insect body through the respiratory system, exerting toxic effects. Smoke generators are primarily used for the control of diseases and pests in forests, warehouses, greenhouses, and sanitation.
Emulsion in Water (EW)
The emulsion in water is an opaque, concentrated emulsion liquid pesticide formulation in the form of oil in water. It is composed of water-insoluble pesticide oil, emulsifiers, dispersants, stabilizers, antifreeze agents, and water, which are processed through homogenization. This formulation does not necessarily require the use of oil as a solvent, or sometimes only a small amount is required.
Water Dispersible Granule（WG）
The water dispersible granule is a type of pesticide formulation that rapidly disintegrates and disperses into a suspension-like granular form when mixed with water. This type combines the advantages of wettable powder (WP) and concentrated suspension formulations, including excellent suspension, dispersion, and stability, while overcoming their disadvantages. Compared with wettable powders, WG formulations have better flowability, making them easier to pour out of containers without generating dust. Compared with concentrated suspensions, WG formulations overcome issues such as sedimentation and caking during storage, freezing at low temperatures, and high transportation costs.